The Heidelberg Catechism

The Heidelberg Catechism


~~Introduction (Q. 1-2)

Lord’s Day 1

1. What is your only comfort in life and in death?
That I, with body and soul, both in life and in
death,[1] am not my own,[2] but belong to my
faithful Savior Jesus Christ,[3] who with His precious
blood[4] has fully satisfied for all my sins,[5] and
redeemed me from all the power of the devil;[6] and
so preserves me[7] that without the will of my Father
in heaven not a hair can fall from my head;[8]
indeed, that all things must work together for my
salvation.[9] Wherefore, by His Holy Spirit, He also
assures me of eternal life,[10] and makes me heartily
willing and ready from now on to live unto Him.[11]
[1] Rom 14:7-9; [2] 1 Cor 6:19-20; [3] 1 Cor 3:23; Tit
2:14; [4] 1 Pt 1:18-19; [5] 1 Jn 1:7; 2:2; [6] Jn 8:34-36;
Heb 2:14-15; 1 Jn 3:8; [7] Jn 6:39-40, 10:27-30; 2 Thes
3:3; 1 Pt 1:5; [8] Mt 10:29-31; Lk 21:16-18; [9] Rom
8:28; [10] Rom 8:15-16; 2 Cor 1:21-22, 5:5; Eph 1:13-14;
[11] Rom 8:14

2. How many things are necessary for you to know,
that in this comfort you may live and die happily?
Three things:[1] First, the greatness of my sin and
misery.[2] Second, how I am redeemed from all my
sins and misery.[3] Third, how I am to be thankful to
God for such redemption.[4]
[1] Lk 24:46-47; Rom 7:24-25; 1 Cor 6:11; Tit 3:3-7; [2]
Jn 9:41, 15:22; Rom 3:9-10; 1 Jn 1:10; [3] Jn 17:3; Acts
4:12, 10:43; Gal 3:13; [4] Mt 5:16; Rom 6:13; Eph 5:8
11; Col 3:17; 1 Pt 2:9-12

~~First Part: Guilt (Q. 3-11)

Lord’s Day 2

3. From where do you know your misery?
From the Law of God.[1]
[1] Rom 3:20, 7:7

4. What does the Law of God require of us?
Christ teaches us in sum, Matthew 22: “You shall
love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with
all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all
your strength.[1] This is the first and great
commandment. And the second is like unto it, You
shall love your neighbor as yourself.[2] On these two
commandments hang all the law and the
[1] Deut 6:5; [2] Lev 19:18; Gal 5:14; [3] Lk 10:27

5. Can you keep all this perfectly?
No,[1] for I am prone by nature to hate God and my
[1] Rom 3:10-12, 23; 1 Jn 1:8, 10; [2] Gen 6:5, 8:21; Jer
17:9; Rom 7:23, 8:7; Eph 2:3; Tit 2:3

Lord’s Day 3

6. Did God create man thus, wicked and perverse?
No, but God created man good[1] and after His own
image,[2] that is, in righteousness and true
holiness,[3] that he might rightly know God his
Creator,[4] heartily love Him, and live with Him in
eternal blessedness, to praise and glorify Him.[5]
[1] Gen 1:31; [2] Gen 1:26-27 [3] Eph 4:24; 2 Cor 3:18;
[4] Col 3:10; [5] Ps 8

7. From where, then, does this depraved nature of
man come?
From the fall and disobedience of our first parents,
Adam and Eve, in Paradise,[1] whereby our nature
became so corrupt[2] that we are all conceived and
born in sin.[3]
[1] Gen 3; [2] Rom 5:12, 18-19; [3] Ps 14:2-3, 51:5

8. But are we so depraved that we are completely
incapable of any good and prone to all evil?
Yes,[1] unless we are born again by the Spirit of
[1] Gen 6:5, 8:21; Job 14:4; Isa 53:6; Jer 17:9; Jn 3:6;
Rom 7:18; [2] Jn 3:3-5

Lord’s Day 4

9. Does not God, then, do injustice to man by
requiring of him in His Law that which he cannot
No, for God so made man that he could perform it;[1]
but man, through the instigation of the devil,[2] by
willful disobedience[3] deprived himself and all his
descendants of this power.[4]
[1] Gen 1:31; Eph 4:24; [2] Gen 3:13; Jn 8:44; 1 Tim
2:13-14; [3] Gen 3:6; [4] Rom 5:12, 18-19

10. Will God allow such disobedience and apostasy
to go unpunished?
Certainly not,[1] but He is terribly displeased with
our inborn as well as our actual sins, and will punish
them in just judgment in time and eternity,[2] as He
has declared: “Cursed is everyone that continues not
in all things which are written in the book of the law
to do them.”[3]
[1] Heb 9:27; [2] Ex 34:7; Ps 5:4-6, 7:10; Nah 1:2; Mt
25:41; Rom 1:18, 5:12; Eph 5:6; [3] Deut 27:26; Gal 3:10

11. But is not God also merciful?
God is indeed merciful,[1] but He is likewise just;[2]
His justice therefore requires that sin which is
committed against the most high majesty of God, be
punished with extreme, that is, with everlasting
punishment both of body and soul.[3]
[1] Ex 20:6, 34:6-7; Ps 103:8-9; [2] Ex 20:5, 34:7; Deut
7:9-11; Ps 5:4-6; 2 Cor 6:14-16; Heb 10:30-31; Rev
14:11; [3] Mt 25:45-46

~~Second Part: Grace (Q. 12-87)

Lord’s Day 5

12. Since, then, by the righteous judgment of God we
deserve temporal and eternal punishment, how may
we escape this punishment and be again received
into favor?
God wills that His justice be satisfied;[1] therefore,
we must make full satisfaction to that justice, either
by ourselves or by another.[2]
[1] Ex 20:5, 23:7; Rom 2:1-11; [2] Isa 53:11; Rom 8:3-4

13. Can we ourselves make this satisfaction?
Certainly not; on the contrary, we daily increase our
[1] Job 9:2-3, 15:15-16; Ps 130:3; Mt 6:12, 16:26; Rom

14. Can any mere creature make satisfaction for us?
None; for first, God will not punish any other
creature for the sin which man committed;[1] and
further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of
God’s eternal wrath against sin and redeem others
from it.[2]
[1] Ezek 18:4, 20; Heb 2:14-18; [2] Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6
15. What kind of mediator and redeemer, then, must
we seek?
One who is a true[1] and righteous man,[2] and yet
more powerful than all creatures, that is, one who is
also true God.[3]
[1] 1 Cor 15:21-22, 25-26; Heb 2:17; [2] Isa 53:11; Jer
13:16; 2 Cor 5:21; Heb 7:26; [3] Isa 7:14, 9:6; Jer 23:6; Jn
1:1; Rom 8:3-4; Heb 7:15-16

Lord’s Day 6

16. Why must He be a true and righteous man?
Because the justice of God requires that the same
human nature which has sinned should make
satisfaction for sin;[1] but one who is himself a sinner
cannot satisfy for others.[2]
[1] Rom 5:12, 15; 1 Cor 15:21; Heb 2:14-16; [2] Isa 53:3
5; Heb 7:26-27; 1 Pt 3:18
17. Why must He also be true God?
That by the power of His Godhead[1] He might bear
in His manhood the burden of God’s wrath,[2] and
so obtain for[3] and restore to us righteousness and
[1] Isa 9:5; [2] Dt 4:24; Isa 53:8; Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6; Acts
2:24; [3] Jn 3:16; Acts 20:28; [4] Isa 53:5, 11; 2 Cor 5:21;
1 Jn 1:2

18. But who now is that Mediator, who in one person
is true God and also a true and righteous man?
Our Lord Jesus Christ,[1] who is freely given unto us
for complete redemption and righteousness. [2]
[1] Mt 1:21-23; Lk 2:11; 1 Tim 2:5, 3:16; [2] Acts 4:12; 1
Cor 1:30

19. From where do you know this?
From the Holy Gospel, which God Himself first
revealed in Paradise,[1] afterwards proclaimed by
the holy patriarchs[2] and prophets,[3] and
foreshadowed by the sacrifices and other ceremonies
of the law,[4] and finally fulfilled by His wellbeloved
[1] Gen 3:15; [2] Gen 12:3, 22:18, 49:10-11; [3] Isa 53;
Jer 23:5-6; Mic 7:18-20; Acts 3:22-24, 10:43; Rom 1:2;
Heb 1:1; [4] Lev 1:7; Jn 5:46; Heb 10:1-10; [5] Rom
10:4; Gal 4:4-5; Col 2:17; Heb 10:1

Lord’s Day 7

20. Are all men, then, saved by Christ as they have
perished in Adam?
No, only those who by true faith are ingrafted into
Him and receive all His benefits.[1]
[1] Ps 2:12; Mt 7:14; Jn 1:12-13, 3:16, 18, 36; Rom.
11:16-21; 1 Cor 15:22; Heb 4:2-3, 10:39

21. What is true faith?
True faith is not only a sure knowledge whereby I
hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His
Word,[1] but also a hearty trust,[2] which the Holy
Spirit[3] works in me by the Gospel,[4] that not only
to others, but to me also,[5] forgiveness of sins,
everlasting righteousness, and salvation are freely
given by God,[6] merely of grace, only for the sake of
Christ’s merits.[7]
[1] Jn 17:3, 17; Heb 11:1-3; Jas 1:6, 2:19; [2] Rom 4:16
21, 5:1, 10:10; Heb 4:16; [3] 2 Cor 4:13; Php 1:19, 29; [4]
Acts 16:4; Rom 1:16, 10:17; 1 Cor 1:21; [5] Gal 2:20; [6]
Rom. 1:17; Heb 10:10, 11:1-2; [7] Acts 10:43; Rom 3:20
26; Gal 2:16; Eph 2:7-10

22. What, then, is necessary for a Christian to
All that is promised us in the Gospel,[1] which the
articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith
teach us in summary.
[1] Mt 28:19-20; Jn 20:30-31; 2 Tim 3:15; 2 Pt 1:21

~~The Apostles’ Creed

23. What are these articles?
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of
heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, His only
begotten Son, our Lord: who was conceived by the
Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under
Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He
descended into hell; the third day He rose again from
the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sits at the
right hand of God the Father Almighty; from there
He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I
believe in the Holy Spirit, a holy catholic Church, the
communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.

~~The Holy Trinity

Lord’s Day 8

24. How are these articles divided?
Into three parts: the first is of God the Father and our
creation; the second, of God the Son and our
redemption; the third, of God the Holy Spirit and our
[1] 1 Pt 1:2

25. Since there is but one Divine Being,[1] why do
you speak of three persons: Father, Son, and Holy
Because God has so revealed Himself in His
Word,,[2] that these three distinct persons are the
one, true, eternal God.
[1] Deut 6:4; Isa 44:6, 45:5; 1 Cor 8:4-6; [2] Gen 1:2-3;
Ps 110:1; Isa 61:1, 63:8-10; Mt 3:16-17, 28:18-19; Lk
4:18; Jn 14:26, 15:26; 2 Cor 13:14; Gal 4:6; Tit 3:5-6

~~Of God the Father and our Creation Creation

Lord’s Day 9

26. What do you believe when you say: “I believe in
God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and
That the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who
of nothing made heaven and earth with all that in
them is,[1] who likewise upholds, and governs the
same by His eternal counsel and providence,[2] is for
the sake of Christ, His Son, my God and my
Father,[3] in whom I so trust as to have no doubt that
He will provide me with all things necessary for
body and soul;[4] and further, that whatever evil He
sends upon me in this troubled life, He will turn to
my good;[5] for He is able to do it, being Almighty
God,[6] and willing also, being a faithful Father.[7]
[1] Gen 1-2; Ex 20:11; Job 38-39; Ps 33:6; Isa 44:24;
Acts 4:24, 14:15; Col 1:16; Heb 11:3; [2] Ps 104:2-5, 27
30, 115:3; Mt 6:30, 10:29-30; Acts 17:24-25; Eph 1:11;
Heb 1:3; [3] Mt 6:8; Jn 1:12-13; Rom 8:15-16; Gal 4:4-7;
Eph 1:5, 3:14-16; [4] Ps 55:22, 90:1-2; Mt 6:25-26; Lk
12:22-31; [5] Acts 17:27-28; Rom 8:28; [6] Gen 18:14;
Rom 8:31-39, 10:12; [7] Num 23:19; Mt 6:32-33, 7:9-11


Lord’s Day 10

27. What do you understand by the providence of
The almighty, everywhere-present power of God,[1]
whereby, as it were by His hand, He still upholds
heaven and earth with all creatures,[2] and so
governs them that herbs and grass, rain and
drought,[3] fruitful and barren years, meat and
drink,[4] health and sickness,[5] riches and
poverty,[6] indeed, all things come not by chance,[7]
but by His fatherly hand.[8]
[1] Jer 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-28; [2] Heb 1:3; [3] Jer 5:24;
[4] Acts 14:15-17; [5] Jn 9:3; [6] Job 1:21; Ps 103:19;
Prov 22:2; Rom 5:3-5; [7] Prov 16:33; [8] Mt 10:29; Eph

28. What does it profit us to know that God created,
and by His providence upholds, all things?
That we may be patient in adversity,[1] thankful in
prosperity,[2] and for what is future have good
confidence in our faithful God and Father, that no
creature shall separate us from His love,[3] since all
creatures are so in His hand, that without His will
they cannot so much as move.[4]
[1] Job 1:21-22; Ps 39:10; Rom 5:3; Jas 1:3; [2] Deut
8:10; 1 Thes 5:18; [3] Ps 55:22; Rom 5:3-5, 8:35, 38-39;
[4] Job 1:12, 2:6; Ps 71:7; Prov 21:1; Acts 17:24-28; 2
Cor 1:10

~~Of God the Son and our Redemption His Name

Lord’s Day 11

29. Why is the Son of God called “Jesus,” that is,
Because He saves us from all our sins,[1] and because
salvation is not to be sought or found in any other.[2]
[1] Mt 1:21; Heb 7:25; [2] Isa 43:11; Lk 2:10-11; Jn 15:4
5; Acts 4:11-12; 1 Tim 2:5

30. Do those also believe in the only Savior Jesus,
who seek their salvation and welfare from “saints,”
themselves, or anywhere else?
No; although they make their boast of Him, yet in
their deeds they deny the only Savior Jesus;[1] for
either Jesus is not a complete Savior, or they who by
true faith receive this Savior, must have in Him all
that is necessary to their salvation.[2]
[1] 1 Cor 1:12-13, 30-31; Gal 5:4; [2] Isa 9:7; Mt. 23:28;
Jn 1:16; Col 1:19-20, 2:10; 1 Jn 1:7

~~His Title

Lord’s Day 12

31. Why is He called “Christ,” that is, Anointed?
Because He is ordained of God the Father and
anointed with the Holy Spirit[1] to be our chief
Prophet and Teacher,[2] who has fully revealed to us
the secret counsel and will of God concerning our
redemption;[3] and our only High Priest,[4] who by
the one sacrifice of His body, has redeemed us,[5]
and ever lives to make intercession for us with the
Father;[6] and our eternal King,[7] who governs us
by His Word and Spirit, and defends and preserves
us in the redemption obtained for us.[8]
[1] Ps 45:7 [Heb 1:9]; Isa 61:1 [Lk 3:21-22, 4:18]; [2]
Deut 18:15 [Acts 3:22]; [3] Jn 1:18, 15:15; [4] Ps 110:4
[Heb 7:17, 21]; [5] Heb 9:12, 10:11-14; [6] Rom 5:9-10,
8:34; Heb 9:24; 1 Jn 2:1; [7] Zech 9:9 [Mt 21:5]; Lk 1:33;
[8] Ps 2:6; Isa.61:1-2; Mt 28:18-20; Jn 10:28; 1 Pt 2:24;
Rev 12:10-11, 19:16

32. But why are you called a Christian?
Because by faith I am a member of Christ[1] and thus
a partaker of His anointing,[2] in order that I also
may confess His Name,[3] may present myself a
living sacrifice of thankfulness to Him,[4] and with a
free conscience may fight against sin and the devil in
this life,[5] and hereafter in eternity reign with Him
over all creatures.[6]
[1] Acts 11:26; 1 Cor 12:12-27; 1 Jn 2:20, 27; [2] Joel
2:28 [Acts 2:17]; 1 Jn 2:27; [3] Mk 8:38, 10:32; Rom
10:9-10; Heb 13:15; [4] Rom 12:1; 1 Pt 2:5, 9; Rev 1:6,
5:8, 10; [5] Gal 5:16-17; Eph 6:11; 1 Tim 1:18-19; [6] Mt
25:34; Eph 6:12; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 3:21

~~His Deity

Lord’s Day 13

33. Why is He called God’s “only begotten Son,”
since we also are the children of God?
Because Christ alone is the eternal, natural Son of
God,[1] but we are children of God by adoption,
through grace, for His sake.[2]
[1] Jn 1:1-3, 14, 18, 3:16; Rom 8:32; Heb 1; 1 Jn 4:9; [2]
Jn 1:12; Rom 8:14-17; Gal 4:6; Eph 1:5-6; 1 Jn 3:1

34. Why do you call Him “our Lord?”
Because not with silver or gold, but with His
precious blood,[1] He has redeemed and purchased
us, body and soul,[2] from sin and from all the power
of the devil, to be His own.[3]
[1] 1 Pt 1:18-19; [2] Acts 2:36; 1 Cor 6:20, 7:23; 1 Tim
2:5-6; Tit 2:14; 1 Pt 2:9; [3] Col 1:13-14; Heb 2:14-15

~~His Incarnation

Lord’s Day 14

35. What is the meaning of “conceived by the Holy
Spirit, born of the virgin Mary?”
That the eternal Son of God, who is and continues
true and eternal God,[1] took upon Himself the very
nature of man, of the flesh and blood of the virgin
Mary,[2] by the operation of the Holy Spirit;[3] so
that He might also be the true seed of David,[4] like
unto His brethren in all things,[5] except for sin.[6]
[1] Jn 1:1-4, 10:30-36; Rom 1:3-4, 9:5; Col 1:15-17; 1 Jn
5:20; [2] Mt 1:18-23; Jn 1:14; Gal 4:4; Heb 2:14; [3] Mt
1:18-20; Lk 1:35; [4] 2 Sam 7:12-16; Ps 132:11; Mt 1:1;
Lk 1:32; Rom 1:3; [5] Php 2:7; Heb 2:17; [6] Heb 4:15,

36. What benefit do you receive from the holy
conception and birth of Christ?
That He is our Mediator,[1] and with His innocence
and perfect holiness[2] covers, in the sight of God,
my sin,[3] wherein I was conceived.[4]
[1] 1 Tim 2:5-6; Heb 2:16-17, 9:13-15; [2] Rom 8:3-4; 2
Cor 5:21; Gal 4:4-5; 1 Pt 1:18-19; [3] Ps 32:1; 1 Jn 1:9;
[4] Ps 51:5

~~His Death

Lord’s Day 15

37. What do you understand by the word “suffered?”
That all the time He lived on earth, but especially at
the end of His life, He bore, in body and soul, the
wrath of God against the sin of the whole human
race;[1] in order that by His suffering, as the only
atoning sacrifice,[2] He might redeem our body and
soul from everlasting damnation,[3] and obtain for us
the grace of God, righteousness, and eternal life.[4]
[1] Isa 53; 1 Tim 2:6; 1 Pt 2:2-4, 24, 3:18; [2] Ps 22:14
16; Mt 26:38; Rom 3:25-26, 5:6; 1 Cor 5:7; Eph 5:2; Heb
10:14; 1 Jn 2:2, 4:10; [3] Rm 8:1-4; Gal 3:13; Col 1:13;
Heb 9:12; 1Pt 1:18-19; [4] Jn 3:16; Rom 3:24-26; 2Cor
5:21; Heb 9:11

38. Why did He suffer “under Pontius Pilate” as
That He, being innocent, might be condemned by the
temporal judge,[1] and thereby deliver us from the
severe judgment of God, to which we were
[1] Lk 23:13-24; Jn 19:4, 12-16; Acts 4:27-28; [2] Ps 69:4;
Isa 53:4-5; Mt 27:24; 2 Cor 5:21; Gal 3:13

39. Is there anything more in His having been
“crucified” than if He had suffered some other
Yes, for thereby I am assured that He took upon
Himself the curse which lay upon me,[1] because the
death of the cross was accursed of God.[2]
[1] Gal 3:13-14; [2] Deut 21:22-23; Php 2:8

Lord’s Day 16

40. Why was it necessary for Christ to suffer “death?”
Because the justice and truth [1] of God required that
satisfaction for our sins could be made in no other
way than by the death of the Son of God.[2]
[1] Gen 2:17; [2] Rom 6:23, 8:3; Php 2:8; Heb 2:9, 14-15

41. Why was He “buried?”
To show thereby that He was really dead.[1]
[1] Isa 53:9; Mt 27:59-60; Jn 19:38-42; Acts 13:29; 1 Cor

42. Since, then, Christ died for us, why must we also
Our death is not a satisfaction for our sin, but only a
dying to sin and an entering into eternal life.[1]
[1] Jn 5:24; Rom 7:24-25; Php 1:21-23; 1 Thes 5:9-10

43. What further benefit do we receive from the
sacrifice and death of Christ on the cross?
That by His power our old man is with Him
crucified, slain, and buried;[1] so that the evil lusts of
the flesh may no more reign in us,[2] but that we
may offer ourselves unto Him a sacrifice of
[1] Rom 6:5-11; Col 2:11-12; [2] Rom 6:12-14; [3] Rom
12:1; 2 Cor 5:15; Eph 5:1-2

44. Why is it added: “He descended into hell?”
That in my greatest temptations I may be assured
that Christ my Lord, by His inexpressible anguish,
pains, and terrors, which He suffered in His soul on
the cross and before, has redeemed me from the
anguish and torment of hell.[1]
[1] Ps 18:5; 116:3; Isa 53; Mt 26:36-46, 27:46; Heb 5:7

~~His Resurrection

Lord’s Day 17

45. What benefit do we receive from the
“resurrection” of Christ?
First, by His resurrection He has overcome death,
that He might make us partakers of the righteousness
which He has obtained for us by His death.[1]
Second, by His power we are also now raised up to a
new life.[2] Third, the resurrection of Christ is to us a
sure pledge of our blessed resurrection.[3]
[1] Rom 4:25; 1 Cor 15:15-20, 54-55; 1 Pt 1:3-5, 21; [2]
Rom 6:5-11; Eph 2:4-6; Col 3:1-4; [3] Rom 8:11; 1 Cor
15:12-23; Php 3:20-21

~~His Ascension

Lord’s Day 18

46. What do you understand by the words “He
ascended into heaven?”
That Christ, in the sight of His disciples, was taken
up from the earth into heaven,[1] and continues there
in our behalf [2] until He shall come again to judge
the living and the dead.[3]
[1] Mt 26:64; Lk 24:50-51; Acts 1:9-11; [2] Rom 8:34;
Eph 4:10; Heb 4:14, 7:23-25, 9:11, 24; [3] Mt 24:30; Acts
1:11, 3:20-21

47. But is not Christ with us even unto the end of the
world,[1] as He has promised?
Christ is true man and true God. According to His
human nature He is now not on earth,[2] but
according to His Godhead, majesty, grace, and Spirit,
He is at no time absent from us.[3]
[1] Mt 28:20; [2] Mt 26:11; Jn 16:28, 17:11; Acts 3:19-21;
Heb 8:4; [3] Mt 28:18-20; Jn 14:16-19, 16:13; Eph 4:8;
Heb 8:4

48. But are not, in this way, the two natures in Christ
separated from one another, if the manhood is not
wherever the Godhead is?
Not at all, for since the Godhead is incomprehensible
and everywhere present,[1] it must follow that it is
indeed beyond the bounds of the manhood which it
has assumed, but is yet nonetheless in the same also,
and remains personally united to it.[2]
[1] Jer 23:23-24; Acts 7:48-49; [2] Mt 28:6; Jn 1:14, 48,
3:13, 11:15; Col 2:9

49. What benefit do we receive from Christ’s
ascension into heaven?
First, that He is our Advocate in the presence of His
Father in heaven.[1] Second, that we have our flesh
in heaven as a sure pledge, that He as the Head, will
also take us, His members, up to Himself.[2] Third,
that He sends us His Spirit as an earnest,[3] by whose
power we seek those things which are above, where
Christ sits at the right hand of God, and not things on
the earth.[4]
[1] Rom 8:34; 1 Jn 2:1; [2] Jn 14:2, 17:24, 20:17; Eph 2:4
6; [3] Jn 14:16; Acts 2:33; 2 Cor 1:21-22, 5:5; [4] Jn 14:3;
Col 3:1-4; Heb 9:24

~~His Reign

Lord’s Day 19

50. Why is it added: “And sits at the right hand of
Because Christ ascended into heaven for this end,
that He might there appear as the Head of His
Church,[1] by whom the Father governs all things.[2]
[1] Eph 1:20-23; Col 1:18; [2] Ps 110:1; Mt 28:18; Jn
5:22-23; 1 Pt 3:22

51. What does this glory of Christ, our Head, profit
First, that by His Holy Spirit He pours out heavenly
gifts upon us, His members;[1] then, that by His
power He defends and preserves us against all
[1] Acts 2:33; Eph 4:7-12; [2] Ps 2:9, 110:1-2; Jn 10:27
30; Acts 2:33; 1 Cor 15:25-26; Rev 19:11-16

52. What comfort is it to you that Christ “shall come
to judge the living and the dead?”
That in all my sorrows and persecutions, I, with
uplifted head, look for the very One, who offered
Himself for me to the judgment of God, and removed
all curse from me,[1] to come as Judge from
heaven,[2] who shall cast all His and my enemies
into everlasting condemnation,[3] but shall take me
with all His chosen ones to Himself into heavenly joy
and glory.[4]
[1] Lk 21:28; Rom 8:22-25; Php 3:20-21; Tit 2:13-14; [2]
Lk 21:28; Rom 8:23-24; Php 3:20-21; Tit 2:13; [3] Mt
25:41; 1 Thes 4:16-18; 2 Thes 1:6, 10; [4] Mt 25:31-46;
Acts 1:10-11; 1 Thes 4:16-17; 2 Thes 1:6-10; Heb 9:28

~~Of God the Holy Spirit and our Sanctification

Lord’s Day 20

53. What do you believe concerning the “Holy
First, that He is co-eternal God with the Father and
the Son.[1] Second, that He is also given unto me:[2]
by true faith makes me a partaker of Christ and all
His benefits,[3] comforts me,[4] and shall abide with
me forever.[5]
[1] Gen 1:1-2; Isa 48:16; Mt 28:19; Acts 5:3-4; 1 Cor
3:16, 6:19; [2] 1 Cor 6:19; 2 Cor 1:21-22; Gal 4:6; Eph
1:13; [3] 1 Cor 6:17; Gal 3:14; 1 Pt 1:2; [4] Jn 15:26; Acts
9:31; [5] Jn 14:16-17; Rom 15:13; 1 Pt 4:14; 1 Jn 4:13

Lord’s Day 21

54. What do you believe concerning the “holy
catholic Church?”
That out of the whole human race,[1] from the
beginning to the end of the world,[2] the Son of
God,[3] by His Spirit and Word,[4] gathers, defends,
and preserves for Himself[5] unto everlasting life a
chosen communion[6] in the unity of the true
faith;[7] and that I am and forever shall remain a
living member of this communion.[8]
[1] Gen 26:4; Rev 5:9; [2] Isa 59:21; Jn 10:10; 1 Cor
11:26; [3] Jn 10:11; Acts 20:28; Eph 1:10-13, 4:11-13;
Col 1:18; [4] Isa 59:21; Rom 1:16, 10:14-17; Eph 5:26;
[5] Ps 129:1-5; Mt 16:18; Jn 10:28-30; [6] Rom 8:29-30;
Eph 1:3-14, 4:3-6; [7] Ps 71:18; Jn 10:28-30; Acts 2:42
47; 1 Cor 1:8-9, 11:26; [8] Ps 23:6; Jn 10:27-28; 1 Cor
1:4-9; Gal 3:28; 1 Pt 1:3-5; 1 Jn 2:19, 3:14, 19-21

55. What do you understand by the “communion of
First, that believers, one and all, as members of the
Lord Jesus Christ, are partakers with Him in all His
treasures and gifts;[1] second, that each one must feel
himself bound to use his gifts readily and cheerfully
for the advantage and welfare of other members.[2]
[1] Rom 8:32; 1 Cor 6:17, 12:4-7, 12-13; 1 Jn 1:3; [2]
Rom 12:4-8; 1 Cor 12:12-13, 20-27, 13:1-7; Php 2:4-8;
Heb 3:14

56. What do you believe concerning the “forgiveness
of sins?”
That God, for the sake of Christ’s satisfaction,[1] will
no more remember my sins, nor the sinful nature
with which I have to struggle all my life long;[2] but
graciously imputes to me the righteousness of Christ,
that I may nevermore come into condemnation.[3]
[1] 1 Jn 2:2; [2] Ps 103:3, 10-12; Jer 31:34; Mic 7:18-19;
Rom 7:21-25, 8:1-4; 2 Cor 5:18-21; 1 Jn 1:7, 2:2; [3] Jn
3:17-18, 5:24; Rom 4:7-8, 7:18, 8:1-2; Eph 1:7

Lord’s Day 22

57. What comfort do you receive from the
“resurrection of the body?”
That not only my soul after this life shall be
immediately taken up to Christ its Head,[1] but also
that this my body, raised by the power of Christ,
shall be reunited with my soul, and made like the
glorious body of Christ.[2]
[1] Lk 16:21, 23:43; Php 1:21-23; [2] Job 19:25-27; 1 Cor
15:20, 42-46, 53-54; Php 3:21; 1 Jn 3:2

58. What comfort do you receive from the article “life
That, inasmuch as I now feel in my heart the
beginning of eternal joy,[1] I shall after this life
possess complete blessedness, such as eye has not
seen, nor ear heard, neither has entered into the heart
of man,[2] therein to praise God forever.[3]
[1] Jn 17:3; Rom 14:17; 2 Cor 5:2-3; [2] 1 Cor 2:9; [3] Jn
17:24; Rom 8:23; 1 Pt 1:8


Lord’s Day 23

59. What does it help you now, that you believe all
That I am righteous in Christ before God, and an heir
of eternal life.[1]
[1] Hab 2:4; Jn 3:36; Rom 1:17, 5:1-2, 8:16; Tit 3:7

60. How are you righteous before God?
Only by true faith in Jesus Christ:[1] that is, although
my conscience accuses me, that I have grievously
sinned against all the commandments of God, and
have never kept any of them,[2] and am still prone
always to all evil;[3] yet God, without any merit of
mine,[4] of mere grace,[5] grants and imputes to me
the perfect satisfaction,[6] righteousness, and
holiness of Christ,[7] as if I had never committed nor
had any sins, and had myself accomplished all the
obedience which Christ has fulfilled for me;[8] if only
I accept such benefit with a believing heart.[9]
[1] Rom 3:21-28; Gal 2:16; Eph 2:8-9; Php 3:8-11; [2]
Rom 3:9-10; [3] Rom 7:23; [4] Dt 9:6; Ezek 36:22; Tit
3:4-5; [5] Rom 3:24; Eph 2:8; [6] 1 Jn 2:2; [7] Rom 4:3-5;
2 Cor 5:17-19; 1 Jn 2:1; [8] Rom 4:24-25; 2 Cor 5:21; [9]
Jn 3:18; Acts 16:30-31; Rom 3:22, 28, 10:10

61. Why do you say that you are righteous by faith
Not that I am acceptable to God on account of the
worthiness of my faith, but because only the
satisfaction, righteousness and holiness of Christ is
my righteousness before God;[1] and I can receive
the same and make it my own in no other way than
by faith only.[2]
[1] 1 Cor 1:30-31, 2:2; [2] Isa 53:5; Rom 4:16, 10:10; Gal
3:22; 1 Jn 5:10-12

Lord’s Day 24

62. But why cannot our good works be the whole or
part of our righteousness before God? Because the
righteousness which can stand before the judgment
seat of God, must be perfect throughout and entirely
conformable to the divine law,[1] but even our best
works in this life are all imperfect and defiled with
[1] Deut 27:26; Gal 3:10; [2] Isa 64:6; Php 3:12; Jas 2:10

63. Do our good works merit nothing, even though it
is God’s will to reward them in this life and in that
which is to come?
The reward comes not of merit, but of grace.[1]
[1] Mt 5:12; Lk 17:10; Rom 11:6; 2 Tim 4:7-8; Heb 11:6

64. But does not this doctrine make men careless and
No, for it is impossible that those who are implanted
into Christ by true faith, should not bring forth fruits
of thankfulness.[1]
[1] Mt 7:18; Lk 6:43-45; Jn 15:5; Rom 6:1-2

~~The Sacraments

Lord’s Day 25

65. Since, then, we are made partakers of Christ and
all His benefits by faith only, where does this faith
come from?
The Holy Spirit works faith in our hearts[1] by the
preaching of the Holy Gospel,[2] and confirms it by
the use of the holy sacraments.[3]
[1] Jn 3:5; Rom 10:17; 1 Cor 2:10-14; Eph 2:8; Php 1:29;
[2] Rom 10:17; 1 Pt 1:23-25; [3] Mt 28:19-20; Rom 4:11;
1 Cor 10:16

66. What are the sacraments?
The sacraments are visible holy signs and seals
appointed by God for this end, that by their use He
may the more fully declare and seal to us the promise
of the Gospel,[1] namely, that of free grace He grants
us the forgiveness of sins and everlasting life for the
sake of the one sacrifice of Christ accomplished on
the cross.[2]
[1] Gen 17:11; Deut 30:6; Ezek 20:12; Rom 4:11; Heb
9:8-9; [2] Mt 26:27-28; Acts 2:38; Heb 10:10

67. Are both the Word and the sacraments designed
to direct our faith to the sacrifice of Christ on the
cross as the only ground of our salvation?
Yes, truly, for the Holy Spirit teaches in the Gospel
and assures us by the holy sacraments, that our
whole salvation stands in the one sacrifice of Christ
made for us on the cross.[1]
[1] Acts 2:41-42; Rom 6:3; 1 Cor 11:26; Gal 3:27; Heb

68. How many sacraments has Christ instituted in the
New Testament?
Two: Holy Baptism[1] and the Holy Supper.[2] [1] Mt
28:19-20; [2] 1 Cor 11:23-26


Lord’s Day 26

69. How is it signified and sealed to you in Holy
Baptism that you have part in the one sacrifice of
Christ on the cross?
Thus: that Christ instituted this outward washing
with water [1] and joined to it this promise, that I am
washed with His blood and Spirit from the pollution
of my soul, that is, from all my sins, as certainly as I
am washed outwardly with water, whereby
commonly the filthiness of the body is taken away.[2]
[1] Mt 28:19-20; Acts 2:38; [2] Mt 3:11; Mk 1:4; Jn 1:33;
Acts 2:38; Rom 6:3-4; 1 Pt 3:21

70. What is it to be washed with the blood and Spirit
of Christ? It is to have the forgiveness of sins from
God through grace, for the sake of Christ’s blood,
which He shed for us in His sacrifice on the cross;[1]
and also to be renewed by the Holy Spirit and
sanctified to be members of Christ, so that we may
more and more die unto sin and lead holy and
unblamable lives.[2]
[1] Ezek 36:25-27; Zech 13:1; Eph 1:7; Heb 12:24; 1 Pt
1:2; Rev 1:5, 7:14; [2] Jn 1:33, 3:5-8; Rom 6:4; 1 Cor
6:11, 12:13; Col 2:11-12; Heb 9:14

71. Where has Christ promised that we are as
certainly washed with His blood and Spirit as with
the water of Baptism?
In the institution of Baptism, which says: “Go
therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Spirit.[1] He that believes and is baptized shall be
saved; but he that believes not shall be damned.”[2]
This promise is also repeated where Scripture calls
Baptism the washing of regeneration[3] and the
washing away of sins.[4]
[1] Mt 28:19; [2] Mk 16:16; [3] Tit 3:5; [4] Acts 22:16
Lord’s Day 27

72. Is, then, the outward washing with water itself
the washing away of sins?
No,[1] for only the blood of Jesus Christ and the Holy
Spirit cleanse us from all sin.[2]
[1] Eph 5:26; 1 Pt 3:21; [2] Mt 3:11; 1 Cor 6:11; 1 Pt
3:21; 1 Jn 1:7

73. Why then does the Holy Spirit call Baptism the
washing of regeneration and the washing away of
God speaks thus with great cause, namely, not only
to teach us thereby that just as the filthiness of the
body is taken away by water, so our sins are taken
away by the blood and Spirit of Christ;[1] but much
more, that by this divine pledge and token He may
assure us that we are as really washed from our sins
spiritually as our bodies are washed with water.[2]
[1] 1 Cor 6:11; Rev 1:5, 7:14; [2] Acts 2:38; Rom 6:3-4;
Gal 3:27

74. Are infants also to be baptized?
Yes, for since they, as well as their parents, belong to
the covenant and people of God,[1] and through the
blood of Christ[2] both redemption from sin and the
Holy Spirit, who works faith, are promised to them
no less than to their parents,[3] they are also by
Baptism, as a sign of the covenant, to be ingrafted
into the Christian Church, and distinguished from
the children of unbelievers,[4] as was done in the Old
Testament by circumcision,[5] in place of which in
the New Testament Baptism is appointed.[6]
[1] Gen 17:7; [2] Mt 19:14; [3] Ps 22:10; Isa 44:1-3; Lk
1:14-15; Acts 2:38-39, 16:31; [4] Acts 10:47; 1 Cor 7:14;
[5] Gen 17:9-14; [6] Col 2:11-13

~~The Holy Supper

Lord’s Day 28

75. How is it signified and sealed to you in the Holy
Supper that you partake of the one sacrifice of Christ
on the cross and all His benefits?
Thus: that Christ has commanded me and all
believers to eat of this broken bread and to drink of
this cup in remembrance of Him, and has joined
therewith these promises:[1] first, that His body was
offered and broken on the cross for me and His blood
shed for me, as certainly as I see with my eyes the
bread of the Lord broken for me and the cup
communicated to me; and further, that with His
crucified body and shed blood He Himself feeds and
nourishes my soul to everlasting life, as certainly as I
receive from the hand of the minister and taste with
my mouth the bread and cup of the Lord, which are
given me as certain tokens of the body and blood of
[1] Mt 26:26-28; Mk 14:22-24; Lk 22:19-20; 1 Cor 10:16
17, 11:23-25, 12:13

76. What does it mean to eat the crucified body and
drink the shed blood of Christ? It means not only to
embrace with a believing heart all the sufferings and
death of Christ, and thereby to obtain the forgiveness
of sins and life eternal;[1] but moreover, also, to be so
united more and more to His sacred body by the
Holy Spirit,[2] who dwells both in Christ and in us,
that, although He is in heaven[3] and we on earth,
we are nevertheless flesh of His flesh and bone of His
bone,[4] and live and are governed forever by one
Spirit, as members of the same body are governed by
one soul.[5]
[1] Jn 6:35, 40, 47-48, 50-54; [2] Jn 6:55-56; 1 Cor 12:13;
[3] Acts 1:9-11, 3:21; 1 Cor 11:26; Col 3:1; [4] 1 Cor
6:15, 17, 19; Eph 3:16-19, 5:29-30, 32; 1 Jn 4:13; [5] Jn
6:56-58, 63, 14:23, 15:1-6; Eph 4:15-16; 1 Jn 3:24

77. Where has Christ promised that He will thus feed
and nourish believers with His body and blood as
certainly as they eat of this broken bread and drink of
this cup?
In the institution of the Supper, which says: “The
Lord Jesus the same night in which He was betrayed
took bread: and when He had given thanks, He
broke it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is
broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After
the same manner also He took the cup, when He had
eaten, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my
blood: this do, as often as you drink it, in
remembrance of me. For as often as you eat this
bread, and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s
death till He come.”[1] And this promise is also
repeated by the Apostle Paul, where he says: “The
cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the
communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which
we break, is it not the communion of the body of
Christ? Because there is one bread, so we being many
are one body, for we are all partakers of that one
[1] 1 Cor 11:23-25; [2] 1 Cor 10:16-17

Lord’s Day 29

78. Do, then, the bread and the wine become the real
body and blood of Christ?
No, but as the water in Baptism is not changed into
the blood of Christ, nor becomes the washing away
of sins itself, being only the divine token and
assurance thereof,[1] so also in the Lord’s Supper the
sacred bread[2] does not become the body of Christ
itself, though agreeably to the nature and usage of
sacraments it is called the body of Christ.[3]
[1] Mt 26:29; Eph 5:26; Tit 3:5; [2] Mt 26:26-29; 1 Cor
11:26-28; [3] Gen 17:10-11; Ex 12:11, 13, 26-27, 43, 48; 1
Cor 10:1-4, 16-17, 26-28

79. Why then does Christ call the bread His body,
and the cup His blood, or the new covenant in His
blood; and the apostle Paul, the communion of the
body and the blood of Christ?
Christ speaks thus with great cause, namely, not only
to teach us thereby, that like as the bread and wine
sustain this temporal life, so also His crucified body
and shed blood are the true meat and drink of our
souls unto life eternal;[1] but much more, by this
visible sign and pledge to assure us that we are as
really partakers of His true body and blood by the
working of the Holy Spirit, as we receive by the
mouth of the body these holy tokens in remembrance
of Him;[2] and that all His sufferings and obedience
are as certainly our own, as if we ourselves had
suffered and done all in our own person.[3]
[1] Jn 6:51-55; [2] 1 Cor 5:16-17, 10:16-17, 11:26; [3]
Rom 6:5-11

Lord’s Day 30

80. What difference is there between the Lord’s
Supper and the Pope’s Mass?
The Lord’s Supper testifies to us that we have full
forgiveness of all our sins by the one sacrifice of Jesus
Christ, which He Himself once accomplished on the
cross;[1] and that by the Holy Spirit we are ingrafted
into Christ,[2] who, with His true body, is now in
heaven at the right hand of the Father,[3] and is there
to be worshipped.[4] But the Mass teaches that the
living and the dead do not have forgiveness of sins
through the sufferings of Christ, unless Christ is still
daily offered for them by the priests, and that Christ
is bodily under the form of bread and wine, and is
therefore to be worshipped in them. And thus the
Mass at bottom is nothing else than a denial of the
one sacrifice and suffering of Jesus Christ,[5] and an
accursed idolatry.
[1] Mt 26:28; Jn 19:30; Heb 7:27, 9:12, 25-28, 10:10-12,
14; [2] 1 Cor 6:17, 10:16-17; [3] Jn 20:17; Acts 7:55-56;
Heb 1:3, 8:1; [4] Lk 24:52; Jn 4:21-24, 20:17; Acts 7:55;
Php 3:20-21; Col 3:1; 1 Thes 1:9-10; [5] Mt 4:10; Heb 9,

81. Who are to come to the table of the Lord?
Those who are displeased with themselves for their
sins, yet trust that these are forgiven them, and that
their remaining infirmity is covered by the suffering
and death of Christ; who also desire more and more
to strengthen their faith and to amend their life. But
the impenitent and hypocrites eat and drink
judgment to themselves.[1]
[1] Ps 51:3, 103:1-4; Mt 5:6; Jn 7:37-38; 1 Cor 10:19-22,

82. Are they, then, also to be admitted to this Supper
who show themselves by their confession and life to
be unbelieving and ungodly?
No, for thereby the covenant of God is profaned and
His wrath provoked against the whole
congregation;[1] therefore, the Christian Church is
bound, according to the order of Christ and His
Apostles, to exclude such persons by the Office of the
Keys until they amend their lives.
[1] Ps 50:16-17; Isa 1:11-17, 66:3; Jer 7:21-23; Mt 7:6; 1
Cor 11:17-34; 2 Thes 3:6; Tit 3:10-11

~~Preaching & Discipline

Lord’s Day 31

83. What is the Office of the Keys?
The preaching of the Holy Gospel and Christian
discipline; by these two the kingdom of heaven is
opened to believers and shut against unbelievers.[1]
[1] Mt 16:18-19, 18:18; Lk 24:46-47; Jn 20:21-23; 1 Cor

84. How is the kingdom of heaven opened and shut
by the preaching of the Holy Gospel?
In this way: that, according to the command of
Christ, it is proclaimed and openly witnessed to
believers, one and all, that as often as they accept
with true faith the promise of the Gospel, all their
sins are really forgiven them of God for the sake of
Christ’s merits; and on the contrary, to all
unbelievers and hypocrites, that the wrath of God
and eternal condemnation abide on them so long as
they are not converted.[1] According to this
testimony of the Gospel, God will judge men both in
this life and in that which is to come.
[1] Isa 58:1; Mt 16:19; Jn 3:31-36, 8:24, 20:21-23; Acts
10:43; 2 Cor 2:15-16

85. How is the kingdom of heaven shut and opened
by Christian discipline?
In this way: that, according to the command of
Christ, if any under the Christian name show
themselves unsound either in doctrine or in life, and
after several brotherly admonitions do not turn from
their errors or evil ways, they are complained of to
the Church or to its proper officers; and, if they
neglect to hear them also, are by them denied the
holy sacraments and thereby excluded from the
Christian communion, and by God Himself from the
kingdom of Christ; and if they promise and show
real amendment, they are again received as members
of Christ and His Church.[1]
[1] Mt 18:15-20; Lk 15:20-24; 1 Cor 5:3-5, 11-13; 2 Cor
2:6-11; 2 Thes 3:14-15; 2 Jn 10-11

~~Third Part: Gratitude


Lord’s Day 32

86. Since, then, we are redeemed from our misery by
grace through Christ, without any merit of ours, why
must we do good works?
Because Christ, having redeemed us by His blood,
also renews us by His Holy Spirit after His own
image, that with our whole life we show ourselves
thankful to God for His blessing,[1] and that He be
glorified through us;[2] then also, that we ourselves
may be assured by our faith by the fruits thereof;[3]
and by our godly walk win also others to Christ.[4]
[1] Rom 6:13, 12:1-2; 1 Cor 6:20; 1 Pt 2:5-10; [2] Mt
5:16; 1 Cor 6:19-20; 1 Pt 2:12; [3] Mt 7:17-18; Gal 5:6,
22-24; 2 Pt 1:10-11; [4] Mt 5:14-16; Rom 14:17-19; 1 Pt
2:12, 3:1-2; 2 Pt 1:10

87. Can they, then, not be saved who do not turn to
God from their unthankful, impenitent life? By no
means, for, as Scripture says, no unchaste person,
idolater, adulterer, thief, covetous man, drunkard,
slanderer, robber, or the like shall inherit the
kingdom of God.[1]
[1] 1 Cor 6:9-10; Gal 5:19-21; Eph 5:5-6; 1 Jn 3:14-15

Lord’s Day 33

88. In how many things does true repentance or
conversion consist?
In two things: the dying of the old man, and the
making alive of the new.[1]
[1] Rom 6:4-6; 1 Cor 5:7; 2 Cor 5:17; Eph 4:22-24; Col

89. What is the dying of the old man?
Heartfelt sorrow for sin, causing us to hate and turn
from it always more and more.[1]
[1] Ps 51:3-4, 17; Joel 2:12-13; Rom 8:12-13; 2 Cor 7:10

90. What is the making alive of the new man?
Heartfelt joy in God through Christ,[1] causing us to
take delight in living according to the will of God in
all good works.[2]
[1] Ps 51:8, 12; Isa 57:15; Rom 5:1, 14:17; [2] Rom 6:10
11, 7:22, 8:10-11; Gal 2:20

91. What are good works?
Those only which proceed from true faith,[1] and are
done according to the Law of God,[2] unto His
glory,[3] and not such as rest on our own opinion[4]
or the commandments of men.[5]
[1] Jn 15:5; Rom 14:23; Heb 11:6; [2] Lev 18:4; 1 Sam
15:22; Eph 2:10; [3] 1 Cor 10:31; [4] Deut 12:32; Isa
29:13; Ezek 20:18, 20; [5] Num 15:39; Mt 15:7-9

The Ten Commandments

92. What is the Law of God?
God spoke all these words, saying:
First Commandment
“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of
the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You
shall have no other gods before Me.
Second Commandment
You shall not make for yourself a carved image – any
likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is
in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the
earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve
them. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God,
visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children
to the third and fourth generations of those who hate
Me, but showing covenant faithfulness to thousands,
to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
Third Commandment
You shall not take the name of the LORD your God
in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who
takes His name in vain.
Fourth Commandment
Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days
you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh
day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you
shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your
daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female
servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is
within your gates. For in six days the LORD made
the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in
them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the
LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
Fifth Commandment
Honor your father and your mother, that your days
may be long upon the land which the LORD your
God is giving you.
Sixth Commandment
You shall not murder.
Seventh Commandment
You shall not commit adultery.
Eighth Commandment
You shall not steal.
Ninth Commandment
You shall not bear false witness against your
Tenth Commandment
You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall
not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant,
nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey,
nor anything that is your neighbors.”[1]
[1] Ex 20; Deut 5; Ps 119:9; Mt 5:17-19; Rom 3:31, 10:5

Lord’s Day 34

93. How are these Commandments divided?
Into two tables:[1] the first of which teaches, in four
commandments, what duties we owe to God; the
second, in six, what duties we owe to our
[1] Ex 34:28; Deut 4:13; [2] Mt 22:37-40

~~First Commandment

94. What does God require in the first
That, on peril of my soul’s salvation, I avoid and flee
all idolatry,[1] sorcery, enchantments,[2] invocation
of saints or of other creatures;[3] and that I rightly
acknowledge the only true God,[4] trust in Him
alone,[5] with all humility[6] and patience[7] expect
all good from Him only,[8] and love,[9] fear,[10] and
honor [11] Him with my whole heart; so as rather to
renounce all creatures than to do the least thing
against His will.[12]
[1] 1 Cor 6:9-10, 10:5-14; 1 Jn 5:21; [2] Lev 19:31; Deut
18:9-12; [3] Mt 4:10; Rev 19:10, 22:8-9; [4] Jn 17:3; [5]
Jer 17:5, 7; [6] 1 Pt 5:5-6; [7] Rom 5:3-4; 1 Cor 10:10;
Php 2:14; Col 1:10-11; Heb 10:36; [8] Ps 104:27-30; Isa
45:6-7; Jas 1:17; [9] Deut 6:5 [Mt 22:37]; [10] Deut 6:2;
Ps 111:10; Prov 1:7, 9:10; Mt 10:28; 1Pt 1:7; [11] Deut
6:13 [Mt 4:10], 10:20; [12] Mt 5:29-30, 10:37-39; Acts

95. What is idolatry?
Idolatry is to conceive or have something else in
which to place our trust instead of, or besides, the
one true God who has revealed Himself in His
[1] 1 Chron 16:26; Ps 62:5-7, 73:25-26, 81:8-9; Mt 6:24;
Jn 2:23, 5:23; Gal 4:8-9; Eph 2:12, 5:5; Php 3:19; 2 Jn 9

~~Second Commandment

Lord’s Day 35

96. What does God require in the second
That we in no way make any image of God,[1] nor
worship Him in any other way than He has
commanded us in His Word.[2]
[1] Deut 4:15-19; Isa 40:18-25; Acts 17:29; Rom 1:22-24;
[2] Lev 10:1-7; Deut 4:23-24, 12:30-32; 1 Sam 15:22-23;
Mt 15:9; Jn 4:23-24

97. May we not make any image at all?
God may not and cannot be imaged in any way; as
for creatures, though they may indeed be imaged, yet
God forbids the making or keeping of any likeness of
them, either to worship them or to serve God by
[1] Ex 23:24-25, 34:13-14, 17; Num 33:52; Deut 7:5,
12:3, 16:22; 2 Kgs 18:4-5; Isa 40:25; Jn 1:18

98. But may not pictures be tolerated in churches as
books for the people?
No, for we should not be wiser than God, who will
not have His people taught by dumb idols,[1] but by
the lively preaching of His Word.[2]
[1] Ps 135:15-18; Jer 10:8; Hab 2:18-20; [2] Rom 10:14
17; 2 Tim 3:16-17; 2 Pt 1:19

~~Third Commandment

Lord’s Day 36

99. What is required in the third Commandment?
That we must not by cursing,[1] or by false
swearing,[2] nor yet by unnecessary oaths,[3] profane
or abuse the name of God; nor even by our silence[4]
and connivance be partakers of these horrible sins in
others; and in summary, that we use the holy name
of God in no other way than with fear and
reverence,[5] so that He may be rightly confessed[6]
and worshiped[7] by us, and be glorified in all our
words and works.[8]
[1] Lev 24:10-17; [2] Lev 19:12; [3] Mt 5:37; Jas 5:12; [4]
Lev 5:1; Prov 29:24; [5] Ps 99:1-5; Isa 45:23; Jer 4:2; [6]
Mt 10:32-33; Rom 10:9-10; [7] Ps 50:14-15; 1 Tim 2:8;
[8] Rom 2:24; Col 3:16-17; 1 Tim 6:1; 1 Pt 3:15

100. Is the profaning of God’s name, by swearing and
cursing, so grievous a sin that His wrath is kindled
against those also who do not help as much as they
can to hinder and forbid it?
Yes, truly,[1] for no sin is greater and more
provoking to God than the profaning of His name;
wherefore He even commanded it to be punished
with death.[2]
[1] Lev 5:1; [2] Lev 19:12, 24:15-16; Prov 29:24-25

Lord’s Day 37

101. But may we swear reverently by the name of
Yes, when the magistrate requires it, or when it may
be needful otherwise, to maintain and promote
fidelity and truth to the glory of God and our
neighbor’s good; for such an oath is grounded in
God’s Word,[1] and therefore was rightly used by the
saints in the Old and New Testaments.[2]
[1] Deut 6:13, 10:20; Isa 48:1; Jer 4:1-2; Heb 6:16; [2]
Gen 21:24, 31:53-54; Josh 9:15, 19; 1 Sam 24:22; 1 Kgs
1:29-30; Rom 1:9; 2 Cor 1:23

102. May we swear by “the saints” or by any other
No, for a lawful oath is a calling upon God, that He,
as the only searcher of hearts, may bear witness to
the truth, and punish me if I swear falsely;[1] which
honor is due to no creature.[2]
[1] Rom 9:1; 2 Cor 1:23; [2] Jer 5:7; Isa 65:16; Mt 5:34
37, 23:16-22; Jas 5:12

~~Fourth Commandment

Lord’s Day 38

103. What does God require in the fourth
In the first place, God wills that the ministry of the
Gospel and schools be maintained,[1] and that I,
especially on the day of rest, diligently attend
church[2] to learn the Word of God,[3] to use the
Holy Sacraments,[4] to call publicly upon the
Lord,[5] and to give Christian alms.[6] In the second
place, that all the days of my life I rest from my evil
works, allow the Lord to work in me by His Spirit,
and thus begin in this life the everlasting Sabbath.[7]
[1] Dt 6:4-9, 20-25; 1 Cor 9:13-14; 1 Tim 2:2, 3:13-17,
4:13-14, 5:17; Tit 1:5; [2] Dt 12:5-12; Ps 40:9-11, 68:26;
Acts 2:42-47; 2 Tim 2:2, 15; Heb 10:23-25; [3] Rom
10:14-17; 1 Cor 14:19-33; 1 Tim 4:13; [4] 1 Cor 11:23
24, 33; [5] 1 Cor 14:16; Col 3:16; 1 Tim 2:1-2, 8-10; [6]
Ps 50:14; 1 Cor 16:2; 2 Cor 8-9; [7] Isa 66:23; Acts 20:7;
Gal 6:6; Heb 4:9-11

~~Fifth Commandment

Lord’s Day 39

104. What does God require in the fifth
That I show all honor, love, and faithfulness to my
father and mother,[1] and to all in authority over
me,[2] submit myself with due obedience to all their
good instruction and correction, and also bear
patiently with their infirmities, since it is God’s will
to govern us by their hand.[3]
[1] Gen 9:24-25; Ex 21:17; Prov 1:8-9, 4:1, 15:20, 20:20;
Eph 6:1-6, 22; Col 3:18, 20-24; [2] Mt 22:21; Rom 13:1,
2-7; 1 Pt 2:18; [3] Deut 27:16, 32:24; Prov 13:24, 30:17;
Eph 6:4, 9; Col 3:19, 21; 1 Tim 2:1-2, 5:17; Heb 13:17-18

~~Sixth Commandment

Lord’s Day 40

105. What does God require in the sixth
That I do not revile, hate, insult, or kill my neighbor
either in thought, word, or gesture, much less in
deed, whether by myself or by another,[1] but lay
aside all desire of revenge;[2] moreover, that I do not
harm myself, nor willfully run into any danger.[3]
Wherefore also to restrain murder the magistrate is
armed with the sword.[4]
[1] Gen 9:6; Lev 19:17-18; Mt 5:21-22, 26:52; [2] Prov
25:21-22; Mt 5:25, 18:35; Rom 1:19, 12:19; Eph 4:26; [3]
Mt 4:7, 26:52; Rom 13:11-14; Col 2:23; [4] Gen 9:6; Ex
21:14; Mt 18:6-7; Rom 13:4

106. Does this Commandment speak only of killing?
No, but in forbidding murder God teaches us that He
abhors its very root, namely, envy,[1] hatred,[2]
anger,[3] and desire of revenge; and that in His sight
all these are hidden murder.[4]
[1] Rom 1:28-32; [2] 1 Jn 2:9-11; [3] Gal 5:19-21; Jas
2:13; [4] 1 Jn 3:15; Jas 1:19, 3:16

107. But is this all that is required: that we do not kill
our neighbor? No, for in condemning envy, hatred,
and anger, God requires us to love our neighbor as
ourselves,[1] to show patience, peace, meekness,[2]
mercy,[3] and kindness[4] toward him, and to
prevent his hurt as much as possible;[5] also, to do
good even unto our enemies.[6]
[1] Mt 7:12, 22:39; Rom 12:10; [2] Rom 12:18; Gal 6:1-2;
Eph 4:2; [3] Mt 5:7; Lk 6:36; [4] Rom 12:10; [5] Ex 23:5;
[6] Mt Mt. 5:9, 44-45; Rom 12:20-21; Col 3:12-14.

~~Seventh Commandment

Lord’s Day 41

108. What does the seventh Commandment teach us?
That all unchastity is accursed of God,[1] and that we
should therefore loathe it with our whole heart,[2]
and live chastely and modestly,[3] whether in holy
wedlock or single life.[4] [1] Lev 18:27-30; Eph 5:3-5;
[2] Jude 22-23; [3] 1 Thes 4:3-8; [4] 1 Cor 7:1-9; Heb
13:4 109. Does God forbid nothing more in this
Commandment than adultery and such gross sins?
Since both our body and soul are temples of the Holy
Spirit, it is His will that we keep both pure and holy;
therefore, He forbids all unchaste actions, gestures,
words,[1] thoughts, desires,[2] and whatever may
entice thereto.[3]
[1] 1 Cor 6:18-20; Eph 5:3-4; [2] Mt 5:27-30; [3] 1 Cor
15:33; Eph 5:18-19

~~Eight Commandment

Lord’s Day 42

110. What does God forbid in the eighth
God forbids not only such theft[1] and robbery[2] as
are punished by the government, but God views as
theft also all wicked tricks and devices, whereby we
seek to get our neighbor’s goods, whether by force or
by deceit,[3] such as unjust weights,[4] lengths,
measures,[5] goods, coins, usury,[6] or by any means
forbidden of God; also all covetousness[7] and the
misuse and waste of His gifts.[8]
[1] 1 Cor 6:10; [2] Ex 22:1; 1 Cor 5:9-10, 6:9-10; [3] Mic
6:9-11; Mk 3:14; Lk 3:14; Jas 1:5-6; 1 Thes 4:6; [4] Prov
11:1, 16:11; [5] Deut 25:13-15; Ezek 45:9-10; [6] Ps 15:5;
Lk 6:35; [7] Lk 12:15; 1 Cor 6:10; Eph 5:5; [8] Prov
5:10, 21:20, 23:20-21; Lk 16:10-13; Jn 6:12; 1 Tim 6:10

111. But what does God require of you in this
That I further my neighbor’s good where I can and
may, deal with him as I would have others deal with
me,[1] and labor faithfully, so that I may be able to
help the poor in their need.[2]
[1] Mt 7:12; [2] Gen 3:19; Isa 58:5-10; Gal 6:9-10; Eph
4:28; Php 2:4; 1 Tim 6:6-7

~~Ninth Commandment

Lord’s Day 43

112. What does the ninth Commandment require?
That I bear false witness against no one,[1] twist no
one’s words,[2] be no backbiter or slanderer,[3] join
in condemning no one unheard or rashly;[4] but that
on pain of God’s heavy wrath, I avoid all lying and
deceit[5] as the very works of the devil;[6] and that in
matters of judgment and justice and in all other
affairs, I love, speak honestly, and confess the
truth;[7] also, insofar as I can, defend and promote
my neighbor’s good name.[8]
[1] Prov 19:5, 9; [2] Ps 15:3; [3] Rom 1:28-30; [4] Mt
7:1-2; Lk 6:37; [5] Jn 8:44; [6] Prov 12:22, 13:5; [7] 1 Cor
13:6; Eph 4:25; [8] Jn 7:24, 51; Col 4:6; 1 Pt 2:21, 23, 3:9,

~~Tenth Commandment

Lord’s Day 44

113. What does the tenth Commandment require?
That not even the least inclination or thought against
any commandment of God ever enter our heart, but
that with our whole heart we continually hate all sin
and take pleasure in all righteousness.[1]
[1] Ps 19:7-14, 139:23-24; Prov 4:23; Mt 15:11, 19-20;
Rom 7:7-8; Jas 1:14-15

114. Can those who are converted to God keep these
Commandments perfectly?
No, but even the holiest men, while in this life, have
only a small beginning of such obedience,[1] yet so
that with earnest purpose they begin to live not only
according to some, but according to all the
Commandments of God.[2]
[1] Ecc 7:20; Rom 7:14-15; 1 Cor 13:9; 1 Jn 1:8-10; [2]
Job 9:2-3; Ps 1:1-2, 19:13; Rom 7:22-25; Php 3:12-16; Jas

115. Why then does God so strictly enjoin the Ten
Commandments upon us, since in this life no one can
keep them?
First, that as long as we live we may learn more and
more to know our sinful nature,[1] and so the more
earnestly seek forgiveness of sins and righteousness
in Christ;[2] second, that without ceasing we
diligently ask God for the grace of the Holy Spirit,
that we be renewed more and more after the image
of God, until we attain the goal of perfection after
this life.[3]
[1] Ps 32:5; 1 Jn 1:9; [2] Rom 3:19-26, 7:7, 24-25; [3] Ps
51:12; Mt 5:6; 1 Cor 9:24-25; Php 3:12-14; 1 Jn 3:1-3

~~The Lord’s Prayer

Lord’s Day 45

116. Why is prayer necessary for Christians?
Because it is the chief part of thankfulness which God
requires of us,[1] and because God will give His
grace and Holy Spirit only to those who earnestly
and without ceasing ask them of Him, and render
thanks unto Him for them.[2]
[1] Ps 50:14-15, 116:12-19; 1 Thes 5:16-18; [2] Mt 7:7-8,
13:12; Lk 11:9-13; Eph 6:18

117. What belongs to such prayer which is acceptable
to God and which He will hear? First, that with our
whole heart[1] we call only upon the one true God,
who has revealed Himself to us in His Word,[2] for
all that He has commanded us to ask of Him;[3]
second, that we thoroughly know our need and
misery,[4] so as to humble ourselves in the presence
of His divine majesty;[5] third, that we be firmly
assured[6] that notwithstanding our unworthiness
He will, for the sake of Christ our Lord, certainly
hear our prayer,[7] as He has promised us in His
[1] Jn 4:22-24; [2] Rom 8:26; 1 Jn 5:14; [3] Ps 27:8; [4] 2
Chron 20:12; [5] Ps 2:10, 34:18; Isa 66:2; [6] Rom 10:14;
Jas 1:6; [7] Dan 9:17-18; Jn 14:13-16; [8] Ps 143:1; Mt
7:8; Lk 18:13

118. What has God commanded us to ask of Him?
All things necessary for soul and body,[1] which
Christ our Lord comprised in the prayer which He
Himself taught us.
[1] Mt 6:33; Php 4:6; Jas 1:17; 1 Pt 5:7

119. What is the Lord’s Prayer?
Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy
name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth,
as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from
evil: for Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and
the glory, forever. Amen.[1]
[1] Mt 6:9-13; Lk 11:2-4

Lord’s Day 46

120. Why did Christ command us to address God
thus: “Our Father?”
To awaken in us at the very beginning of our prayer
that childlike reverence for and trust in God, which
are to be the ground of our prayer, namely, that God
has become our Father through Christ, and will
much less deny us what we ask of Him in faith than
our parents refuse us earthly things.[1]
[1] Isa 63:16; Mt 7:9-11; Lk 11:11-13; 1 Pt 1:17

121. Why is it added: “Who art in heaven?”
That we might have no earthly thought of the
heavenly majesty of God,[1] and from His almighty
power expect all things necessary for body and
[1] Jer 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-27; [2] 1 Kgs 8:28; Ps 115:3;
Mt 6:25-34; Rom 8:10:12, 31-32

Lord’s Day 47

122. What is the first petition?
“Hallowed be Thy name;” that is, grant us, first,
rightly to know You, [1] and to hallow, magnify, and
praise You in all Your works, in which Your power,
goodness, justice, mercy, and truth shine forth;[2]
and further, that we so order our whole life, our
thoughts, words, and deeds, that Your name may not
be blasphemed, but honored and praised on our
[1] Ps 119:105; Jer 9:23-24, 31:33-34; Mt 16:17; Jn 17:3;
Jas 1:5; [2] Ex 34:5-8; Ps 119:137, Ps 145; Jer 32:16-20;
Lk 1:46-55, 68-75; Rom 11:33-36; [3] Ps 71:8, 16, 92:1-2,
100:3-4, 115:1; Mt 5:16; Eph 1:16-17

Lord’s Day 48

123. What is the second petition?
“Thy kingdom come;” that is, so govern us by Your
Word and Spirit, that we submit ourselves to You
always more and more;[1] preserve and increase
Your Church;[2] destroy the works of the devil, every
power that exalts itself against You, and all wicked
devices formed against Your Holy Word,[3] until the
fullness of Your kingdom come,[4] wherein You shall
be all in all.[5]
[1] Ps 119:5, 105, 143:10; Mt 6:33; [2] Ps 51:18, 122:6-7;
Mt 16:18; Acts 2:42-47; [3] Rom 16:20; 1 Jn 3:8; [4]
Rom 8:22-23; Rev 22:17, 20; [5] Ps 102:12-13; 1 Cor
15:24, 28; Heb 12:28; Rev 11:15

Lord’s Day 49

124. What is the third petition?
“Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven;” that is,
grant that we and all men renounce our own will,[1]
and without gainsaying obey Your will, which alone
is good;[2] so that every one may fulfill his office and
calling as willingly and faithfully [3] as the angels do
in heaven.[4]
[1] Mt 16:24; [2] Mt 7:21, 16:24-26; Lk 22:42; Rom 12:1
2; Tit 2:11-12; [3] 1 Cor 7:17-24; Eph 6:5-9; [4] Ps
103:20-21; Rom 12:2; Heb 13:21

Lord’s Day 50

125. What is the fourth petition?
“Give us this day our daily bread;” that is, be pleased
to provide for all our bodily need,[1] so that we may
thereby acknowledge that You are the only fountain
of all good,[2] and that without Your blessing neither
our care and labor, nor You gifts, can profit us;[3]
that we may therefore withdraw our trust from all
creatures and place it alone in You.[4]
[1] Ps 104:27-30, 145:15-16; Mt 6:25-34; [2] Acts 14:17,
17:25-28; Jas 1:17; [3] Deut 8:3; Ps 37:3-7, 16-17, 127:1
2; 1 Cor 15:58; [4] Ps 55:22, Ps 62, Ps 146; Jer 17:1-8;
Heb 13:5-6

Lord’s Day 51

126. What is the fifth petition?
“And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our
debtors;” that is, be pleased, for the sake of Christ’s
blood, not to impute to us miserable sinners our
manifold transgressions, nor the evil which always
cleaves to us;[1] as we also find this witness of Your
grace in us, that it is our full purpose heartily to
forgive our neighbor.[2]
[1] Ps 51:1-7, 143:2; Rom 8:1; 1 Jn 2:1-2; [2] Ps 51:5-7;
Mt 6:14-15, 18:21-35; Eph 1:7

Lord’s Day 52

127. What is the sixth petition?
“And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us
from evil;” that is, since we are so weak in ourselves
that we cannot stand a moment,[1] and besides, our
deadly enemies, the devil,[2] the world,[3] and our
own flesh,[4] assail us without ceasing, be pleased to
preserve and strengthen us by the power of Your
Holy Spirit, that we may make firm stand against
them and not be overcome in this spiritual
warfare,[5] until finally complete victory is ours.[6]
[1] Ps 103:14-16; Jn 15:1-5; [2] 2 Cor 11:14; Eph 6:10
13; 1 Pt 5:8-9; [3] Jn 15:18-21; [4] Rom 7:23; Gal 5:17;
[5] Mt 10:19-20, 26:41; Mk 13:33; Rom 5:3-5; [6] 1 Cor
10:13; 2 Cor 12:7; 1 Thes 3:13, 5:23-24

128. How do you close this prayer?
“For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the
glory, for ever;” that is, all this we ask of You,
because as our King, having power over all things,
You are willing and able to give us all good;[1] and
that thereby not we, but Your holy name may be
glorified for ever.[2]
[1] Rom 10:11-13; 2 Pt 2:9; [2] Ps 115:1; Jer 33:8-9; Jn

129. What is the meaning of the word “Amen?”
“Amen” means: so shall it truly and surely be. For
my prayer is much more certainly heard of God than
I feel in my heart that I desire these things of Him.[1]
[1] Ps 145:18-19; Isa 65:24; 2 Cor 1:20; 2 Tim 2:13